In a stunning discovery that overturns decades of textbook teaching, researchers at the University of Virginia (UVA) School of Medicine have determined that the brain is directly connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist. That such vessels could have escaped detection when the lymphatic system has been so thoroughly mapped throughout the body is surprising on its own, but the true significance of the discovery lies in the effects it could have on the study and treatment of neurological diseases ranging from autism to Alzheimers disease to multiple sclerosis.
“Instead of asking, ‘How do we study the immune response of the brain?’ ‘Why do multiple sclerosis patients have the immune attacks?’ now we can approach this mechanistically. Because the brain is like every other tissue connected to the peripheral immune system through meningeal lymphatic vessels,” said Jonathan Kipnis, PhD, professor in the UVA Department of Neuroscience and director of UVA’s Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG). “It changes entirely the way we perceive the neuro-immune interaction. We always perceived it before as something esoteric that can’t be studied. But now we can ask mechanistic questions.”
“We believe that for every neurological disease that has an immune component to it, these vessels may play a major role,” Kipnis said. “Hard to imagine that these vessels would not be involved in a [neurological] disease with an immune component.”
New Discovery in Human Body
Kevin Lee, PhD, chairman of the UVA Department of Neuroscience, described his reaction to the discovery by Kipnis’ lab: “The first time these guys showed me the basic result, I just said one sentence: ‘They’ll have to change the textbooks.’ There has never been a lymphatic system for the central nervous system, and it was very clear from that first singular observation – and they have done many studies since then to bolster the finding – that it will fundamentally change the way people look at the central nervous system’s relationship with the immune system.”
Even Kipnis was skeptical initially. “I really did not believe there are structures in the body that we are not aware of. I thought the body was mapped,” he said. “I thought that these discoveries ended somewhere around the middle of the last century. But apparently they have not.”
‘Very Well Hidden’
The discovery was made possible by the work of Antoine Louveau, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in Kipnis’ lab. The vessels were detected after Louveau developed a method to mount a mouse’s meninges – the membranes covering the brain – on a single slide so that they could be examined as a whole. “It was fairly easy, actually,” he said. “There was one trick: We fixed the meninges within the skullcap, so that the tissue is secured in its physiological condition, and then we dissected it. If we had done it the other way around, it wouldn’t have worked.”
After noticing vessel-like patterns in the distribution of immune cells on his slides, he tested for lymphatic vessels and there they were. The impossible existed. The soft-spoken Louveau recalled the moment: “I called Jony [Kipnis] to the microscope and I said, ‘I think we have something.'”
As to how the brain’s lymphatic vessels managed to escape notice all this time, Kipnis described them as “very well hidden” and noted that they follow a major blood vessel down into the sinuses, an area difficult to image. “It is so close to the blood vessel, you just miss it,” he said. “If you don’t know what you are after, you just miss it.”
“Live imaging of these vessels was crucial to demonstrate their function, and it would not be possible without collaboration with Tajie Harris,” Kipnis noted. Harris, a PhD, is an assistant professor of neuroscience and a member of the BIG center. Kipnis also saluted the “phenomenal” surgical skills of Igor Smirnov, a research associate in the Kipnis lab whose work was critical to the imaging success of the study.
Alzheimers, Autism, MS and Beyond
The unexpected presence of the lymphatic vessels raises a tremendous number of questions that now need answers, both about the workings of the brain and the diseases that plague it. For example, take Alzheimer’s disease. “In Alzheimers, there are accumulations of big protein chunks in the brain,” Kipnis said. “We think they may be accumulating in the brain because they’re not being efficiently removed by these vessels.” He noted that the vessels look different with age, so the role they play in aging is another avenue to explore. And there’s an enormous array of other neurological diseases, from autism to multiple sclerosis, that must be reconsidered in light of the presence of something science insisted did not exist.
See more at: http://www.neuroscientistnews.com/research-news/missing-link-found-between-brain-immune-system-major-disease-implications#sthash.9POxNfZg.dpuf
During last ten years the incidence of autism has skyrocketed from 1 in 300 to 1 in 600 children. Many in the healthcare field believe that vaccinations may be the culprit that conventional medicine is fearful to scrutinize.
Are vaccinations worth the risk of a child becoming autistic for the rest of their life?
There has been numerous publications to correlate Autism with Thimerosol [mercury] in vaccination.
Thimerosal is a mercury-based preservative used in the manufacturing process of multidose vaccines.
Thimerosal helps to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi in vaccines, to stabilize the vaccine so that it remains effective over time.
The use of thimerosal is necessary to prevent infections at the vaccination site. Infection at the site of the injection can lead to bloodstream infections and abscesses.
The best available science to date has shown that there is no link between vaccines containing thimerosal and autism or other behaviour disorders.
The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) has reviewed the safety of thimerosal and concluded that the alleged adverse health effect from thimerosal in vaccines has never been substantiated.
International bodies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) and the Institute of Medicine in the U.S., share this opinion.
NACI has recommended a long-term goal of removing thimerosal from vaccines, provided that safe alternatives to this preservative can be found. This will help to reduce unnecessary environmental exposure to mercury.
Thimerosal is a mercury-based preservative. In large concentrations, or over extended periods of exposure, mercury can cause damage to the brain and the kidneys. The organic form, methylmercury, is the main known cause of neurological damage. The sources of methylmercury are in the environment, with fish as a food source being of greatest concern. Maximum tolerable levels for daily intake of methylmercury relative to body weight have been established.
Thimerosal contains ethylmercury, not methylmercury. The original concern regarding thimerosal in vaccines was a purely theoretical one, brought to attention in the 1990s based on the total amount that would be received in the infant schedule as recommended in the United States at that time. The recommended maximum levels for methylmercury exposure were used because no such guidelines existed for ethylmercury.
The assumption was that methylmercury and ethylmercury are handled in the same way by humans. This has been shown to be false. Ethylmercury is eliminated much more quickly and is less likely to reach toxic levels in the blood than methylmercury.
Using Homeopathic vaccination is safer than regular vaccination.
This week, devotees to the shrine of conventional medicine that is vaccination, are called to the floor.
After Dr. Brian Hookers requests through the Freedom of Information Act for original MMR study documentation, a CDC Immunization Safety Researcher, Dr. William Thompson has buckled under the pressure of his conscience, and come forth as a whistle blower. These documents demonstrated a 340% increase in the incidence of autism in African American boys, expunged from the final study results in a violent act of scientific fraud. In response to this now recovered letter from Dr. Thompson addressing this finding, the CDC retroactively altered the data to eliminate the signal of harm. In light of this 2004 letter confirming CDC awareness and suppression of these findings, CDC head, Dr. Julie Gerberding committed perjury before moving onto her position at Merck in the Vaccine Division. Dr. Hooker has published the unadulterated finding here.
As parents around the world have known for 7 decades, and basic science has supported, vaccines do cause autism. Despite the defiance of the CDC in its refusal to conduct that most basic of studies, a retrospective case-control investigation of autism rates in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children, science has been supporting the connection for years. In a transparent effort to paralyze the conversation, the Institute of Medicine has handily dismissed a causal relationship between vaccination and autism, referencing 4 studies, including the very study in question, and another by now fugitive Paul Thorsen, and one that actually did demonstrate over 50% regression after MMR. Analyses that have been done, outside of Pharmas pocket book, have demonstrated statistically significant correlations between vaccination and autism and suggested that prevention involves less to no vaccination.
It is time for us to acknowledge the heinous nature of this one-size fits all pharmaceutical assault. There are no green vaccines, no room for a slowed or alternate schedule because vaccination itself is predicated on an antiquated misapprehension of individualized immunity. Metals, antibiotics, chemical preservatives, and manipulated animal and human tissues have no place in human ecology. This mismatch is particularly egregious in our current state as a species, hovering on the brink of devolution, in an age of profound trans generational compromise of mitochondrial dysfunction, detox capacity, and microbiota supported immunity.
A veritable body bomb, the MMR contains recombinant human albumin, fetal bovine serum, and chick embryo fibroblasts, and the potential for interspecies activation of unknown retroviruses, molecular mimicry, and reactivation of the virulence of the infectious virus itself.
We are NOT against vaccination. The public has the right to know and have the choice to use commercial vaccination vs natural vaccination to support the immune system. It is wellness by choice not by chance. Parents should have the right to choose whether to vaccinate their children or not. Forced vaccination is counter productive.
Dr. George Grant, Ph.D., I.M.D., D.H.S., M.Sc., M.Ed., B.Sc.(Hons.), C.Chem., R.M., C.B.S.
who is known as The Caring Doctor, is considered the Canadian authority in Integrative & Functional and Nutritional Medicine and Canadas Wellness Ambassador.
Dr. George Grant is an expert in biofeedback, stress, nutrition, natural pain management, functional & integrative medicine, anti aging and nutritional medicine. He is the founder & CEO of the Academy Of Wellness in 1980.
Dr. Grants Inclusive Health philosophy encompasses preventing disease, orthomolecular nutrition regular exercise mindfulness and stress-reduction. He has helped over 7000 clients worldwide to reduce their dependency on medications, prevent surgeries and lead a normal healthy life style to 101+.
Dr. Grant believes that Prevention is better than Intervention, Self Care is better than Crisis Care and Meditation is better than Medications.
Dr. George Grant has published over 150 scientific papers and numerous poster session presentations, organized 2 International Conferences, completed 7 university degrees, have 7 worldwide patents, member of 6 advisory board of several Neutraceutical & Pharmaceutical companies, member of the editorial board of 8 International Journals, 17 fortune 500 companies, 10 non profit organizations and an active member of 6 professional organizations in Canada & USA.
Dr. Grant enjoys a stellar academic and a fascinating career in research. He is a specialist in functional & integrative medicine, scientist, professor, chemist, toxicologist, nutritionist, biofeedback, stress management and a natural pain specialist. Dr. Grants work has been endorsed by Nobel Laureates, Olympic Athletes, Scientists from various disciplines, Medical doctors, Integrative doctors, Pharmacists, Natural doctors, Acupuncturists, Massage therapists as well as allied health practioners worldwide.
Dr Grant worked as a Senior Consultant for Health Canada, with MOU at FDA and CDC as well as in private practice. He has helped over 7000 clients naturally worldwide including clients at Sunnybrook hospital in Toronto to recover naturally from clogged arteries within few months.
Our Philosophy is: We care, serve and educate NOT medicate, operate, radiate and vaccinate.
We believe that prevention is better than intervention. Dr Grant support the upcoming health care reform which will make Integrative & functional Medicine, the primary health care system. Self care is more effective than crisis care and will cut health care funding/costs by half by the year 2020.
Dr. George Grant has helped several key fortune 500 companies in Canada, USA and worldwide; non profit organizations in 7 countries; and top Olympic Athletes from Canada, USA along with 7000 clients worldwide.
Dr. Grant is an Editor of several refereed scientific journals, has over 150 published articles, over 150 conference presentations, over 180 book reviews and 10 bestselling books/ DVDs